Aerodynamics Laboratory

The AT1 wind tunnel in the Aerodynamics Laboratory at the Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences was established in 2000 through cooperation and joint investment with the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb. The tunnel was intensively used for teaching purposes for the needs of FPZ and FSB students until 2010, when it was dismantled due to problems with lack of space. During that time, several scientific master’s and diploma theses were written, as well as a large number of student seminar papers. Tunnel equipment has been upgraded and improved (Catalog of laboratory equipment). At the beginning of 2014, the AT1 wind tunnel was reassembled and launched as part of the Aerodynamics Laboratory at Facility 210, Borongaj Science and School Campus. The AT1 tunnel is used for teaching purposes for laboratory exercises in several subjects at the FPZ Aeronautics study programme and the FSB Aeronautical Engineering study programme. The wind tunnel is a closed type of power line, with an open working section of elliptical shape 352 x 310 mm, length 450 mm. The working medium is air and in the working section flow velocities up to 50 m / s and Reynolds numbers up to 10^6 are achieved. The main goal of research activities is the development of research capacities in the field of applied aerodynamics and analysis and development plan of AT1 wind tunnel. Additional goals are: improvement of teaching methods (student project), increasing the number of AT1 wind tunnel laboratory exercises, and active involvement of students in the work of the Laboratory for Aerodynamics through Bachelor’s and Master’s theses assignments.

Low-speed wind tunnel

Low-speed wind tunnel

Year of production 
Short description:Low-speed windtunnel is shared educational equipement of the Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences and Department of Aeronautical Engineering, FMENA. It is located at University Campus Borongaj.
Features:  Wind tunnel of Aerodynamic Laboratory is a closed type tunnel made ​​of plywood with a double-wall and ribs between them. The main parts of the tunnel are: test-section, contraction secton, flow straighteners, diffuser, fan, drive motor, and turning vanes. The tunnel has a circular cross-section, except for the test-section, nozzle output and entrance to the first diffuser that are elliptical. Test-section is open on the sides. Dimensions of the test-section are 0,352 x 0,310 m, 0,450 m length. The total power required for the operation of the tunnel, or increase pressure expressed through measure the effectiveness of the tunnel, ER and depends on airspeed. Drive section (asynchronous motor and fan) is located in a metal casing mounted on a separate carrier. The engine is controled by frequency so that the frequency is independent variable that detremines all other variables. Maximum motor frequency is 50 Hz, power is 4 kW, a speed 2900 RPM .
Purpose:It is used for the study of fundamental laws of subsonic, incompressible fluid flow.  
Installation of low-speed wind tunnel
Equipment and model:Multilevel piezometer
Year of production 
Short description:Multilevel piezometer is used for relative pressure measurements. It has a fluid reservoir and 30 transparent tubes which are connecting pressure measurement points. One tube is used to measure the reference pressure, and the remaining 29 for the measurement of local pressures. In each tube there is a scale on which the height of the liquid level is read. Difference between local and reference pressure (expressed in different fluid levels) is a relative (differential) pressure. Multilevel piezometer can be tilted that increases the reading resolution.  
Features:Measuring range: approximately ± 5000 Pa
Purpose:  Determination of pressure distribution around the airfoil at various angles of attack and available airflow speeds;Display of pressure distribution around the airfoil above the critical angle of attack (stall conditions).  

Multilevel piezometer
Equipment:NACA 2421 airfoil model with pressure taps (metalic, c=0.15 m)
Short description:  Airfoil model has an opening at the front edge and 14 pressure taps at upper surface and lower surface. Pressure taps are connected with pneumatic tubes to the multilevel piezometer.
Features:  NACA 2421 airfoil model chord length: c = 0.15 m
Purpose:  Determination of pressure distribution around the airfoil at various angles of attack and available airflow speeds;Display of pressure distribution around the airfoil above the critical angle of attack (stall conditions).  
Airfoil model 2421
Airfoil model sideview

Equipment and model:
3D printer Ultimaker 2

Ultimaker, Geldermalsen, Nizozemska
Year of production:2013.
Short description:  A material design printer that designs and builds 3D models and products of devices and components using an additive manufacturing process from CAD software-created 3D design diagrams, figures and patterns. Manufacturer’s web page:
Features:  Loudness while working: 49 dBMaterial: PLA ili ABSLayer resolution: do 20 μmTravel speed: 30 do 300 mm/sBuild volume: 230 x 225 x 205 mmRecommended filament diameter: 2.85 mmUsage cost: ~ €0.05 / cm3 (material and power) Software: Cura (free, open access)  
Purpose:  3D printing device for Laboratory purposes. Used for printing 3D aircraft, airfoil and propeller models for wind tunnel testing.
Ultimaker 2

Equipment and model:
Development Board EasyPIC Fusion v7 932-MIKROE-1205 + 932-MIKROE-1206   5 KOM

Year of production:2015
Short description:      Development Boards EasyPIC FUSION v7 and matching MCU card.
Features:     Power supply: 7 to 23VAC or 9 to 32VDC or via USB cable (5VDC)Board dimensions: 266 x 220mm (10.47 x 8.66in)Power consumption: ~143mA (all modules are disconnected)
Purpose:    Developing and testing firmware, creating prototypes, learning embedded programming  

Airspeed measuring set

Dwyer Instruments
Short description:Airspeed measuring set contains : 1 handheld digital manometer Series 475 MK III 1 Pitot-static tube 166-6-CF, diameter 1/8” (3.2 mm) and length 6” (15.24 cm)2 tubes with static openings 2 rubber tubes length 9 ft and 3/16” (4.7625 mm) diameter9 V batery, hole maker, conversion table  
Features:Measures 0 till 9 mbar with 0.5% accuracy and 1 Hz sample rate.
Purpose:Airspeed measurement in low speed tunnel test section.
Airspeed measuring set

Equipment and model:
NetScanner 9000

Pressure Systems, Inc.
Year of production:?
Short descritpion:Pressure and differential measuring system composed from different 9000 series modules. two 9016 Intelligent Pressure Scanner modules  two 9034 modulesone 9021 moduleNUSS software for PC compatible computers.    
Features:The module 9016 scanner integrates 16 silicon piezoresistive pressure sensors of any pressure range with a microprocessor in a compact, rugged package. Each field-replaceable pressure sensor incorporates a temperature sensor and EEPROM for storage of calibration data as well as sensor identification information such as pressure range, factory calibration date, and user-managed last or next calibration date. The 9016 can sample using up to three concurrent scan lists at continuous rates up to 100 measurements per channel per second in engineering units. Intellignet pressure scanner comes with appropriate visual software NUSS for PC based computers. Model 9021 pressure scanner interfaces to twelve (12) external transducers or signal sources.Modules 9034 are pressure controllers.
Purpose:Used for measuring the pressure at 29 pressure taps around airfoil model.  
NetScanner 9000

Name of specialized software package
   LabVIEW – System-design platform and development environment for a visual programming  

          National Instruments, Austin, Texas, SAD
Year of production:2014.
Type of licenceeducational -1
Licence price:1880 €
Licence end date:30.09.2015.
Software purpose:  LabVIEW (short for Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) is a system-design platform and development environment for a visual programming language. It is used to develop sophisticated measurement, test, and control systems, data aquisition, instrumentation and process control. In the Aerodynamics Laboratory we use Labview for acquistion of pressure measurements over airfoil model. Using pressure data from all measurement points and other relevant data (airspeed, angle of attack, etc.) a Labview application is made for calculating lift.  

Leave a Reply